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Equal Employment Opportunity Commission v. R.G. & G.R. Harris Funeral Homes, Inc.

United States Court of Appeals, Sixth Circuit

March 7, 2018

Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, Plaintiff-Appellant,
R.G. &. G.R. Harris Funeral Homes, Inc., Defendant-Appellee. Aimee Stephens, Intervenor,

          Argued: October 4, 2017

         Appeal from the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Michigan at Detroit. No. 2:14-cv-13710-Sean F. Cox, District Judge.


          Anne Noel Occhialino, EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION, Washington, D.C., for Appellant.

          John A. Knight, AMERICAN CIVIL LIBERTIES UNION FOUNDATION, Chicago, Illinois, for Intervenor.

          Douglas G. Wardlow, ALLIANCE DEFENDING FREEDOM, Scottsdale, Arizona, for Appellee.

         ON BRIEF:

          Anne Noel Occhialino, EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION, Washington, D.C., for Appellant.

          John A. Knight, AMERICAN CIVIL LIBERTIES UNION FOUNDATION, Chicago, Illinois, Jay D. Kaplan, Daniel S. Korobkin, AMERICAN CIVIL LIBERTIES UNION FUND OF MICHIGAN, Detroit, Michigan, for Intervenor.

          Douglas G. Wardlow, Gary S. McCaleb, ALLIANCE DEFENDING FREEDOM, Scottsdale, Arizona, for Appellee.

          Jennifer C. Pizer, Nancy C. Marcus, LAMBDA LEGAL DEFENSE AND EDUCATION FUND, INC., Los Angeles, California, Gregory R. Nevins, LAMBDA LEGAL DEFENSE AND EDUCATION FUND, INC., Atlanta, Georgia, Richard B. Katskee, AMERICANS UNITED FOR SEPARATION OF CHURCH AND STATE, Washington, D.C., Doron M. Kalir, CLEVELAND-MARSHALL COLLEGE OF LAW, Cleveland, Ohio, Elizabeth Reiner Platt, Katherine Franke, PRIVATE RIGHTS / PUBLIC CONSCIENCE PROJECT, New York, New York, Mary Jane Eaton, Wesley R. Powell, Sameer Advani, WILLKIE FARR & GALLAGHER, LLP, New York, New York, Eric Alan Isaacson, LAW OFFICE OF ERIC ALAN ISAACSON, La Jolla, California, William J. Olson, WILLIAM J. OLSON, P.C., Vienna, Virginia, for Amici Curiae.

          Before: MOORE, WHITE, and DONALD, Circuit Judges.



         Aimee Stephens (formerly known as Anthony Stephens) was born biologically male.[1] While living and presenting as a man, she worked as a funeral director at R.G. & G.R. Harris Funeral Homes, Inc. ("the Funeral Home"), a closely held for-profit corporation that operates three funeral homes in Michigan. Stephens was terminated from the Funeral Home by its owner and operator, Thomas Rost, shortly after Stephens informed Rost that she intended to transition from male to female and would represent herself and dress as a woman while at work. Stephens filed a complaint with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission ("EEOC"), which investigated Stephens's allegations that she had been terminated as a result of unlawful sex discrimination. During the course of its investigation, the EEOC learned that the Funeral Home provided its male public-facing employees with clothing that complied with the company's dress code while female public-facing employees received no such allowance. The EEOC subsequently brought suit against the Funeral Home in which the EEOC charged the Funeral Home with violating Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 ("Title VII") by (1) terminating Stephens's employment on the basis of her transgender or transitioning status and her refusal to conform to sex-based stereotypes; and (2) administering a discriminatory-clothing-allowance policy.

         The parties submitted dueling motions for summary judgment. The EEOC argued that it was entitled to judgment as a matter of law on both of its claims. For its part, the Funeral Home argued that it did not violate Title VII by requiring Stephens to comply with a sex-specific dress code that it asserts equally burdens male and female employees, and, in the alternative, that Title VII should not be enforced against the Funeral Home because requiring the Funeral Home to employ Stephens while she dresses and represents herself as a woman would constitute an unjustified substantial burden upon Rost's (and thereby the Funeral Home's) sincerely held religious beliefs, in violation of the Religious Freedom Restoration Act ("RFRA"). As to the EEOC's discriminatory-clothing-allowance claim, the Funeral Home argued that Sixth Circuit case law precludes the EEOC from bringing this claim in a complaint that arose out of Stephens's original charge of discrimination because the Funeral Home could not reasonably expect a clothing-allowance claim to emerge from an investigation into Stephens's termination.

         The district court granted summary judgment in favor of the Funeral Home on both claims. For the reasons set forth below, we hold that (1) the Funeral Home engaged in unlawful discrimination against Stephens on the basis of her sex; (2) the Funeral Home has not established that applying Title VII's proscriptions against sex discrimination to the Funeral Home would substantially burden Rost's religious exercise, and therefore the Funeral Home is not entitled to a defense under RFRA; (3) even if Rost's religious exercise were substantially burdened, the EEOC has established that enforcing Title VII is the least restrictive means of furthering the government's compelling interest in eradicating workplace discrimination against Stephens; and (4) the EEOC may bring a discriminatory-clothing-allowance claim in this case because such an investigation into the Funeral Home's clothing-allowance policy was reasonably expected to grow out of the original charge of sex discrimination that Stephens submitted to the EEOC. Accordingly, we REVERSE the district court's grant of summary judgment on both the unlawful-termination and discriminatory-clothing-allowance claims, GRANT summary judgment to the EEOC on its unlawful-termination claim, and REMAND the case to the district court for further proceedings consistent with this opinion.

         I. BACKGROUND

         Aimee Stephens, a transgender woman who was "assigned male at birth, " joined the Funeral Home as an apprentice on October 1, 2007 and served as a Funeral Director/Embalmer at the Funeral Home from April 2008 until August 2013. R. 51-18 (Stephens Dep. at 49-51) (Page ID #817); R. 61 (Def.'s Counter Statement of Disputed Facts ¶ 10) (Page ID #1828). During the course of her employment at the Funeral Home, Stephens presented as a man and used her then-legal name, William Anthony Beasley Stephens. R. 51-18 (Stephens Dep. at 47) (Page ID #816); R. 61 (Def.'s Counter Statement of Disputed Facts ¶ 15) (Page ID #1829).

         The Funeral Home is a closely held for-profit corporation. R. 55 (Def.'s Statement of Facts ¶ 1) (Page ID #1683).[2] Thomas Rost ("Rost"), who has been a Christian for over sixty-five years, owns 95.4% of the company and operates its three funeral home locations. Id. ¶¶ 4, 8, 17 (Page ID #1684-85); R. 54-2 (Rost Aff. ¶ 2) (Page ID #1326). Rost proclaims "that God has called him to serve grieving people" and "that his purpose in life is to minister to the grieving." R. 55 (Def.'s Statement of Facts ¶ 31) (Page ID #1688). To that end, the Funeral Home's website contains a mission statement that states that the Funeral Home's "highest priority is to honor God in all that we do as a company and as individuals" and includes a verse of scripture on the bottom of the mission statement webpage. Id. ¶¶ 21-22 (Page ID #1686). The Funeral Home itself, however, is not affiliated with a church; it does not claim to have a religious purpose in its articles of incorporation; it is open every day, including Christian holidays; and it serves clients of all faiths. R. 61 (Def.'s Counter Statement of Facts ¶¶ 25-27; 29-30) (Page ID #1832-34). "Employees have worn Jewish head coverings when holding a Jewish funeral service." Id. ¶ 31 (Page ID #1834). Although the Funeral Home places the Bible, "Daily Bread" devotionals, and "Jesus Cards" in public places within the funeral homes, the Funeral Home does not decorate its rooms with "visible religious figures . . . to avoid offending people of different religions." Id. ¶¶ 33-34 (Page ID #1834). Rost hires employees belonging to any faith or no faith to work at the Funeral Home, and he "does not endorse or consider himself to endorse his employees' beliefs or non-employment-related activities." Id. ¶¶ 37-38 (Page ID #1835).

         The Funeral Home requires its public-facing male employees to wear suits and ties and its public-facing female employees to wear skirts and business jackets. R. 55 (Def.'s Statement of Facts at ¶ 51) (Page ID #1691). The Funeral Home provides all male employees who interact with clients, including funeral directors, with free suits and ties, and the Funeral Home replaces suits as needed. R. 61 (Def.'s Counter Statement of Disputed Facts ¶¶ 42, 48) (Page ID #1836- 37). All told, the Funeral Home spends approximately $470 per full-time employee per year and $235 per part-time employee per year on clothing for male employees. Id. ¶ 55 (Page ID #1839).

         Until October 2014-after the EEOC filed this suit-the Funeral Home did not provide its female employees with any sort of clothing or clothing allowance. Id. ¶ 54 (Page ID #1838- 39). Beginning in October 2014, the Funeral Home began providing its public-facing female employees with an annual clothing stipend ranging from $75 for part-time employees to $150 for full-time employees. Id. ¶ 54 (Page ID #1838-39). Rost contends that the Funeral Home would provide suits to all funeral directors, regardless of their sex, id., but it has not employed a female funeral director since Rost's grandmother ceased working for the organization around 1950, R. 54-2 (Rost Aff. ¶¶ 52, 54) (Page ID #1336-37). According to Rost, the Funeral Home has received only one application from a woman for a funeral director position in the thirty-five years that Rost has operated the Funeral Home, and the female applicant was deemed not qualified. Id. ¶¶ 2, 53 (Page ID #1326, 1336).

         On July 31, 2013, Stephens provided Rost with a letter stating that she has struggled with "a gender identity disorder" her "entire life, " and informing Rost that she has "decided to become the person that [her] mind already is." R. 51-2 (Stephens Letter at 1) (Page ID #643). The letter stated that Stephens "intend[ed] to have sex reassignment surgery, " and explained that "[t]he first step [she] must take is to live and work full-time as a woman for one year." Id. To that end, Stephens stated that she would return from her vacation on August 26, 2013, "as [her] true self, Amiee [sic] Australia Stephens, in appropriate business attire." Id. After presenting the letter to Rost, Stephens postponed her vacation and continued to work for the next two weeks. R. 68 (Reply to Def.'s Counter Statement of Material Facts Not in Dispute at 1) (Page ID #2122). Then, just before Stephens left for her intended vacation, Rost fired her. R. 61 (Def.'s Counter Statement of Disputed Facts ¶¶ 10-11) (Page ID #1828). Rost said, "this is not going to work out, " and offered Stephens a severance agreement if she "agreed not to say anything or do anything." R. 54-15 (Stephens Dep. at 75-76) Page ID #1455; R. 63-5 (Rost Dep. at 126-27) Page ID #1974. Stephens refused. Id. Rost testified that he fired Stephens because "he was no longer going to represent himself as a man. He wanted to dress as a woman." R. 51-3 (Rost 30(b)(6) Dep. at 135-36) (Page ID #667).

         Rost avers that he "sincerely believe[s] that the Bible teaches that a person's sex is an immutable God-given gift, " and that he would be "violating God's commands if [he] were to permit one of [the Funeral Home's] funeral directors to deny their sex while acting as a representative of [the] organization" or if he were to "permit one of [the Funeral Home's] male funeral directors to wear the uniform for female funeral directors while at work." R. 54-2 (Rost Aff. ¶¶ 42-43, 45) (Page ID #1334-35). In particular, Rost believes that authorizing or paying for a male funeral director to wear the uniform for female funeral directors would render him complicit "in supporting the idea that sex is a changeable social construct rather than an immutable God-given gift." Id. ¶¶ 43, 45 (Page ID #1334-35).

         After her employment was terminated, Stephens filed a sex-discrimination charge with the EEOC, alleging that "[t]he only explanation" she received from "management" for her termination was that "the public would [not] be accepting of [her] transition." R. 63-2 (Charge of Discrimination at 1) (Page ID #1952). She further noted that throughout her "entire employment" at the Funeral Home, there were "no other female Funeral Director/Embalmers." Id. During the course of investigating Stephens's allegations, the EEOC learned from another employee that the Funeral Home did not provide its public-facing female employees with suits or a clothing stipend. R. 54-24 (Memo for File at 9) (Page ID #1513).

         The EEOC issued a letter of determination on June 5, 2014, in which the EEOC stated that there was reasonable cause to believe that the Funeral Home "discharged [Stephens] due to her sex and gender identity, female, in violation of Title VII" and "discriminated against its female employees by providing male employees with a clothing benefit which was denied to females, in violation of Title VII." R. 63-4 (Determination at 1) (Page ID #1968). The EEOC and the Funeral Home were unable to resolve this dispute through an informal conciliation process, and the EEOC filed a complaint against the Funeral Home in the district court on September 25, 2014. R. 1 (Complaint) (Page ID #1-9).

         The Funeral Home moved to dismiss the EEOC's action for failure to state a claim. The district court denied the Funeral Home's motion, but it narrowed the basis upon which the EEOC could pursue its unlawful-termination claim. EEOC v. R.G. & G.R. Harris Funeral Homes, Inc., 100 F.Supp.3d 594, 599, 603 (E.D. Mich. 2015). In particular, the district court agreed with the Funeral Home that transgender status is not a protected trait under Title VII, and therefore held that the EEOC could not sue for alleged discrimination against Stephens based solely on her transgender and/or transitioning status. See id. at 598-99. Nevertheless, the district court determined that the EEOC had adequately stated a claim for discrimination against Stephens based on the claim that she was fired because of her failure to conform to the Funeral Home's "sex- or gender-based preferences, expectations, or stereotypes." Id. at 599 (quoting R. 1 (Compl. ¶ 15) (Page ID #4-5)).

         The parties then cross-moved for summary judgment. EEOC v. R.G. & G.R. Harris Funeral Homes, Inc., 201 F.Supp.3d 837, 840 (E.D. Mich. 2016). With regard to the Funeral Home's decision to terminate Stephens's employment, the district court determined that there was "direct evidence to support a claim of employment discrimination" against Stephens on the basis of her sex, in violation of Title VII. Id. at 850. However, the court nevertheless found in the Funeral Home's favor because it concluded that the Religious Freedom Restoration Act ("RFRA") precludes the EEOC from enforcing Title VII against the Funeral Home, as doing so would substantially burden Rost and the Funeral Home's religious exercise and the EEOC had failed to demonstrate that enforcing Title VII was the least restrictive way to achieve its presumably compelling interest "in ensuring that Stephens is not subject to gender stereotypes in the workplace in terms of required clothing at the Funeral home." Id. at 862-63. Based on its narrow conception of the EEOC's compelling interest in bringing the claim, the district court concluded that the EEOC could have achieved its goals by proposing that the Funeral Home impose a gender-neutral dress code. Id. The EEOC's failure to consider such an accommodation was, according to the district court, fatal to its case. Id. at 863. Separately, the district court held that it lacked jurisdiction to consider the EEOC's discriminatory-clothing- allowance claim because, under longstanding Sixth Circuit precedent, the EEOC may pursue in a Title VII lawsuit only claims that are reasonably expected to grow out of the complaining party's-in this case, Stephens's-original charge. Id. at 864-70. The district court entered final judgment on all counts in the Funeral Home's favor on August 18, 2016, R. 77 (J.) (Page ID #2235), and the EEOC filed a timely notice of appeal shortly thereafter, see R. 78 (Notice of Appeal) (Page ID #2236-37).

         Stephens moved to intervene in this appeal on January 26, 2017, after expressing concern that changes in policy priorities within the U.S. government might prevent the EEOC from fully representing Stephens's interests in this case. See D.E. 19 (Mot. to Intervene as Plaintiff-Appellant at 5-7). The Funeral Home opposed Stephens's motion on the grounds that the motion was untimely and Stephens had failed to show that the EEOC would not represent her interests adequately. D.E. 21 (Mem. in Opp'n at 2-11). We determined that Stephens's request was timely given that she previously "had no reason to question whether the EEOC would continue to adequately represent her interests" and granted Stephens's motion to intervene on March 27, 2017. D.E. 28-2 (Order at 2). We further determined that Stephens's intervention would not prejudice the Funeral Home because Stephens stated in her briefing that she did not intend to raise new issues. Id. Six groups of amici curiae also submitted briefing in this case.


         A. Standard of Review

         "We review a district court's grant of summary judgment de novo." Risch v. Royal Oak Police Dep't, 581 F.3d 383, 390 (6th Cir. 2009) (quoting CenTra, Inc. v. Estrin, 538 F.3d 402, 412 (6th Cir. 2008)). Summary judgment is warranted when "there is no genuine dispute as to any material fact and the movant is entitled to judgment as a matter of law." Fed.R.Civ.P. 56(a). In reviewing a grant of summary judgment, "we view all facts and any inferences in the light most favorable to the nonmoving party." Risch, 581 F.3d at 390 (citation omitted). We also review all "legal conclusions supporting [the district court's] grant of summary judgment de novo." Doe v. Salvation Army in U.S., 531 F.3d 355, 357 (6th Cir. 2008) (citation omitted).

         B. Unlawful Termination Claim

         Title VII prohibits employers from "discriminat[ing] against any individual with respect to his compensation, terms, conditions, or privileges of employment, because of such individual's race, color, religion, sex, or national origin." 42 U.S.C. § 2000e-2(a)(1). "[A] plaintiff can establish a prima facie case [of unlawful discrimination] by presenting direct evidence of discriminatory intent." Nguyen v. City of Cleveland, 229 F.3d 559, 563 (6th Cir. 2000) (citing Price Waterhouse v. Hopkins, 490 U.S. 228 (1989) (plurality opinion)). "[A] facially discriminatory employment policy or a corporate decision maker's express statement of a desire to remove employees in the protected group is direct evidence of discriminatory intent." Id. (citation omitted). Once a plaintiff establishes that "the prohibited classification played a motivating part in the [adverse] employment decision, " the employer then bears the burden of proving that it would have terminated the plaintiff "even if it had not been motivated by impermissible discrimination." Id. (citing, inter alia, Price Waterhouse, 490 U.S. at 244-45).

         Here, the district court correctly determined that Stephens was fired because of her failure to conform to sex stereotypes, in violation of Title VII. R.G. & G.R. Harris Funeral Homes, Inc., 201 F.Supp.3d at 850 ("[W]hile this Court does not often see cases where there is direct evidence to support a claim of employment discrimination, it appears to exist here."). The district court erred, however, in finding that Stephens could not alternatively pursue a claim that she was discriminated against on the basis of her transgender and transitioning status. Discrimination on the basis of transgender and transitioning status is necessarily discrimination on the basis of sex, and thus the EEOC should have had the opportunity to prove that the Funeral Home violated Title VII by firing Stephens because she is transgender and transitioning from male to female.

         1. Discrimination on the Basis of Sex Stereotypes

         In Price Waterhouse v. Hopkins, 490 U.S. 228 (1989), a plurality of the Supreme Court explained that Title VII's proscription of discrimination "'because of . . . sex' . . . mean[s] that gender must be irrelevant to employment decisions." Id. at 240 (emphasis in original). In enacting Title VII, the plurality reasoned, "Congress intended to strike at the entire spectrum of disparate treatment of men and women resulting from sex stereotypes." Id. at 251 (quoting Los Angeles Dep't of Water & Power v. Manhart, 435 U.S. 702, 707 n.13 (1978)). The Price Waterhouse plurality, along with two concurring Justices, therefore determined that a female employee who faced an adverse employment decision because she failed to "walk . . . femininely, talk . . . femininely, dress . . . femininely, wear make-up, have her hair styled, [or] wear jewelry, " could properly state a claim for sex discrimination under Title VII-even though she was not discriminated against for being a woman per se, but instead for failing to be womanly enough. See id. at 235 (plurality opinion) (quoting Hopkins v. Price Waterhouse, 618 F.Supp. 1109, 1117 (D.D.C. 1985)); id. at 259 (White, J., concurring); id. at 272 (O'Connor, J., concurring).

         Based on Price Waterhouse, we determined that "discrimination based on a failure to conform to stereotypical gender norms" was no less prohibited under Title VII than discrimination based on "the biological differences between men and women." Smith v. City of Salem, 378 F.3d 566, 573 (6th Cir. 2004). And we found no "reason to exclude Title VII coverage for non sex-stereotypical behavior simply because the person is a transsexual." Id. at 575. Thus, in Smith, we held that a transgender plaintiff (born male) who suffered adverse employment consequences after "he began to express a more feminine appearance and manner on a regular basis" could file an employment discrimination suit under Title VII, id. at 572, because such "discrimination would not [have] occur[red] but for the victim's sex, " id. at 574. As we reasoned in Smith, Title VII proscribes discrimination both against women who "do not wear dresses or makeup" and men who do. Id. Under any circumstances, "[s]ex stereotyping based on a person's gender non-conforming behavior is impermissible discrimination." Id. at 575.

         Here, Rost's decision to fire Stephens because Stephens was "no longer going to represent himself as a man" and "wanted to dress as a woman, " see R. 51-3 (Rost 30(b)(6) Dep. at 135-36) (Page ID #667), falls squarely within the ambit of sex-based discrimination that Price Waterhouse and Smith forbid. For its part, the Funeral Home has failed to establish a non-discriminatory basis for Stephens's termination, and Rost admitted that he did not fire Stephens for any performance-related issues. See R. 51-3 (Rost 30(b)(6) Dep. at 109, 136) (Page ID #663, 667). We therefore agree with the district court that the Funeral Home discriminated against Stephens on the basis of her sex, in violation of Title VII.

         The Funeral Home nevertheless argues that it has not violated Title VII because sex stereotyping is barred only when "the employer's reliance on stereotypes . . . result[s] in disparate treatment of employees because they are either male or female." Appellee Br. at 31. According to the Funeral Home, an employer does not engage in impermissible sex stereotyping when it requires its employees to conform to a sex-specific dress code-as it purportedly did here by requiring Stephens to abide by the dress code designated for the Funeral Home's male employees-because such a policy "impose[s] equal burdens on men and women, " and thus does not single out an employee for disparate treatment based on that employee's sex. Id. at 12. In support of its position, the Funeral Home relies principally on Jespersen v. Harrah's Operating Co., 444 F.3d 1104 (9th Cir. 2006) (en banc), and Barker v. Taft Broadcasting Co., 549 F.2d 400 (6th Cir. 1977). Jespersen held that a sex-specific grooming code that imposed different but equally burdensome requirements on male and female employees would not violate Title VII. See 444 F.3d at 1109-11 (holding that the plaintiff failed to demonstrate how a grooming code that required women to wear makeup and banned men from wearing makeup was a violation of Title VII because the plaintiff failed to produce evidence showing that this sex-specific makeup policy was "more burdensome for women than for men"). Barker, for its part, held that a sex-specific grooming code that was enforced equally as to male and female employees would not violate Title VII. See 549 F.2d at 401 (holding that a grooming code that established different hair-length limits for male and female employees did not violate Title VII because failure to comply with the code resulted in the same consequences for men and women). For three reasons, the Funeral Home's reliance on these cases is misplaced.

         First, the central issue in Jespersen and Barker-whether certain sex-specific appearance requirements violate Title VII-is not before this court. We are not considering, in this case, whether the Funeral Home violated Title VII by requiring men to wear pant suits and women to wear skirt suits. Our question is instead whether the Funeral Home could legally terminate Stephens, notwithstanding that she fully intended to comply with the company's sex-specific dress code, simply because she refused to conform to the Funeral Home's notion of her sex. When the Funeral Home's actions are viewed in the proper context, no reasonable jury could believe that Stephens was not "target[ed] . . . for disparate treatment" and that "no sex stereotype factored into [the Funeral Home's] employment decision." See Appellee Br. at 19-20.

         Second, even if we would permit certain sex-specific dress codes in a case where the issue was properly raised, we would not rely on either Jespersen or Barker to do so. Barker was decided before Price Waterhouse, and it in no way anticipated the Court's recognition that Title VII "strike[s] at the entire spectrum of disparate treatment of men and women resulting from sex stereotypes." Price Waterhouse, 490 U.S. at 251 (plurality) (quoting Manhart, 435 U.S. at 707 n.13). Rather, according to Barker, "[w]hen Congress makes it unlawful for an employer to 'discriminate . . . on the basis of . . . sex . . .', without further explanation of its meaning, we should not readily infer that it meant something different than what the concept of discrimination has traditionally meant." 549 F.2d at 401-02 (quoting Gen. Elec. Co. v. Gilbert, 429 U.S. 125, 145 (1976), superseded by statute, Pregnancy Discrimination Act of 1978, Pub. L. 95-555, 92 Stat. 2076, 52 U.S.C. § 2000e(k), as recognized in Shaw v. Delta Air Lines, Inc., 463 U.S. 85, 89 (1983)). Of course, this is precisely the sentiment that Price Waterhouse "eviscerated" when it recognized that "Title VII's reference to 'sex' encompasses both the biological differences between men and women, and gender discrimination, that is, discrimination based on a failure to conform to stereotypical gender norms." Smith, 378 F.3d at 573 (citing Price Waterhouse, 490 U.S. at 251). Indeed, Barker's incompatibility with Price Waterhouse may explain why this court has not cited Barker since Price Waterhouse was decided.

         As for Jespersen, that Ninth Circuit case is irreconcilable with our decision in Smith. Critical to Jespersen's holding was the notion that the employer's "grooming standards, " which required all female bartenders to wear makeup (and prohibited males from doing so), did not on their face violate Title VII because they did "not require [the plaintiff] to conform to a stereotypical image that would objectively impede her ability to perform her job." 444 F.3d at 1113. We reached the exact opposite conclusion in Smith, as we explained that requiring women to wear makeup does, in fact, constitute improper sex stereotyping. 378 F.3d at 574 ("After Price Waterhouse, an employer who discriminates against women because, for instance, they do not wear dresses or makeup, is engaging in sex discrimination because the discrimination would not occur but for the victim's sex."). And more broadly, our decision in Smith forecloses the Jespersen court's suggestion that sex stereotyping is permissible so long as the required conformity does not "impede [an employee's] ability to perform her job, " Jespersen, 444 F.3d at 1113, as the Smith plaintiff did not and was not required to allege that being expected to adopt a more masculine appearance and manner interfered with his job performance. Jespersen's incompatibility with Smith may explain why it has never been endorsed (or even cited) by this circuit-and why it should not be followed now.

         Finally, the Funeral Home misreads binding precedent when it suggests that sex stereotyping violates Title VII only when "the employer's sex stereotyping resulted in 'disparate treatment of men and women.'" Appellee Br. at 18 (quoting Price Waterhouse, 490 U.S. at 251).[3] This interpretation of Title VII cannot be squared with our holding in Smith. There, we did not ask whether transgender persons transitioning from male to female were treated differently than transgender persons transitioning from female to male. Rather, we considered whether a transgender person was being discriminated against based on "his failure to conform to sex stereotypes concerning how a man should look and behave." Smith, 378 F.3d at 572. It is apparent from both Price Waterhouse and Smith that an employer engages in unlawful discrimination even if it expects both biologically male and female employees to conform to certain notions of how each should behave. See Zarda v. Altitude Express, Inc., ___ F.3d ___, No. 15-3775, slip op. at 47 (2d Cir. Feb. 26, 2018) (en banc) (plurality) ("[T]he employer in Price Waterhouse could not have defended itself by claiming that it fired a gender-non-conforming man as well as a gender-non-conforming woman any more than it could persuasively argue that two wrongs make a right.").

         In short, the Funeral Home's sex-specific dress code does not preclude liability under Title VII. Even if the Funeral Home's dress code does not itself violate Title VII-an issue that is not before this court-the Funeral Home may not rely on its policy to combat the charge that it engaged in improper sex stereotyping when it fired Stephens for wishing to appear or behave in a manner that contradicts the Funeral Home's perception of how she should appear or behave based on her sex. Because the EEOC has presented unrefuted evidence that unlawful sex stereotyping was "at least a motivating factor in the [Funeral Home's] actions, " see White v. Columbus Metro. Hous. Auth., 429 F.3d 232, 238 (6th Cir. 2005) (quoting Jacklyn v. Schering-Plough Healthcare Prods. Sales Corp., 176 ...

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